Estonian literature

An Estonian poet among the top minds selected for the pan-European creativity project

The Hay Festival has announced the selection of authors for the Europa28 anthology; among the 28 women is also the Estonian poet and translator, Maarja Kangro. Kangro has written librettos for Estonian composers, published 13 books and translates from Italian, English, German and other languages.  She won the Estonian Children’s …

An Estonian poet among the top minds selected for the pan-European creativity project Read More »

International literature festival HeadRead takes place in Tallinn

The annual international literature festival, HeadRead, in the Estonian capital, Tallinn, brings readers and authors together in a cosy atmosphere.

The Tallinn HeadRead literary festival is run by Estonian writers, publishers and translators. This small boutique festival aims to bring readers and authors together in a more cosy atmosphere. When the festival started in 2009, its purpose was to give the readers an idea what the author thinks of their works, life, art, the world.

The same central motif of the writer as a human in a focus is still followed to this day. “We don’t have guests of honour. All authors are expected and cherished. International authors are also most welcome and in 2019 we have authors from Finland, Sweden and Russian,” the organisers behind the festival said.

International Literature Festival HeadRead

Events at the 2019 HeadRead festival range from literary breakfasts, guided walks and performances to events for children and the whole family. The Saturday evening event, for example, combines literature and music.

The festival is divided between multiple venues over the Tallinn Old Town. The Writers House (the Estonian Writers’ Union) on Harju street serves as the “central hub”.

International authors

This year’s long lineup of international authors shows how far the festival has come. From international visiting authors, this year, the best-known ones are probably Leïla Slimani, Julian Barnes, David Lagercrantz and the Swedish best-selling crime writer, Emelie Schepp. Also, Philip Gross (he has an Estonian ancestry, by the way), who won the T.S. Eliot poetry prize in 2009; Ian Thomson, the author of the Primo Levi bibliography; thriller writer Mick Herron as well as Toon Tellegen and David Patrikarakos.

All events are free, except for the poetry mass at the St Nicholas’ Church and film screenings. See more about the schedule for a coming weekend at HeadRead festival programme.

Allan Cameron: Estonians are great linguists

Lea Kreinin interviews the Scottish publisher, Allan Cameron, who has started to publish Estonian literature in English.

Allan Cameron is a Scottish writer, translator and publisher who lives in Glasgow. He has already published translations of several books from Estonian literature, by Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Andrei Ivanov, Mari Saat and Rein Raud. Tammsaare’s “Truth and Justice vol I” will be available soon. Cameron was discussing life and literature with Lea Kreinin. The full interview with Cameron will be featured in the Estonian Literary Magazine, published in autumn 2019.

Nowadays, so many books are issued every year and some people may think, why bother to publish even more. What has led you to open your own publishing house?

There can never be too many books! Just as there can’t be too many conversations, because language is what people do. The merchant class of the Middle Ages and modern capitalism have always had a utilitarian approach to language, which is often philistine, but also occasionally capable of its own aesthetic. Machiavelli’s prose style is more akin to the modern English than to literary Italian of any age. It is pared down; it is minimalist.

The more people get involved in literature, the better. We’re not in competition with each other, but rather feeding off each other in an endless debate among ourselves and with the dead. I would like to see the return of the long sentence to English literature, but I’m probably alone in that.

Like many things in my life, I got into publishing by chance. I had already translated well over twenty books from Italian, and I had had two novels of my own published in Edinburgh. I then wrote a non-fiction work on language, and it had attracted the attention of some leading literary figures, so I was slightly upset when my publisher wanted to make changes to it (he may have been right).

I decided to strike out on my own and publish it myself. Strangely, it was quite successful and received further plaudits. I then incorrectly assumed that publishing is an easy business. I went into translated novels and initially lost a lot of money, which I have since been trying to pay off. It is difficult to assess whether this was the right thing to do. The upside of publishing is that it’s a collaborative exercise, unlike writing and translating which are solitary occupations.

In the recent years, you have also issued many Estonian books. How did you “find” Estonian literature, what led you to it?

The fate of small nations has always been important to me, partly because of my experience of Bangladesh, which was called East Pakistan when I lived there. Terrible things happened that went unreported because the United States, China and Pakistan formed one regional alliance and India and the Soviet Union the other. The actual reality on the ground was of no interest to anyone in power. Of course, there were more Bengalis than Pakistanis, but they couldn’t join the army and the status of their language was not secure.

Self-determination is a fundamental right and doesn’t only affect small nations, but attitudes to it are often selective, today just as they were then. I have also been fascinated by lesser-spoken languages. This is, in part, because my mother was a Gaelic-speaker, and I spent some summer holidays on a croft in the Scottish Highlands where Gaelic was spoken. My wife is a Gaelic-speaker and my son goes to a Gaelic school. My mother’s attitude to her native tongue was strangely conflicted. She was both proud and ashamed of it. She identified it with the peasantry and felt that she had risen above it.

So, I can easily understand the conflicted attitudes of Oskar in Tammsaare’s “I Loved a German”, because people who have been excluded over many centuries, rebel mentally against their status – but also accept it in their actions and habits, because they have to. Once the dominant power is removed, either through conflict or through a collapse of that power (or powers in the case of Estonia, caught as it was between the Teutonic Knights, Sweden and Russia), the psychological damage and uncertainty endures for some time.

On my first visit to the London Book Fair, I gravitated to the Estonian stand and had a long conversation with a woman who had been called in at the last minute, because the volcano that exploded in Iceland had prevented most people from attending. I took a copy of the pamphlet with several suggestions for translation, which included Mari Saat’s “The Saviour of Lasnamäe” – our first Estonian book.

You have visited Estonia. What is your impression and opinion of our country?

I first visited Estonia in 2014 and had a wonderful time. It was very interesting to meet Estonian writers and hear about their work. Like most small countries, Estonians are great linguists, and this is something I greatly admire.

Citizens of large countries often think of small countries as provincial, but the opposite is true. Provincialism is essentially the tendency to believe that all knowledge and good practice is contained within the entity the provincial person identifies with, but no small nation can believe this. Small nations are outward-looking, and large nations are inward-looking. The English-speaking world or the Anglosphere is an extreme example of this “provincialism of the powerful”. This is why I am so committed to translated literature. English badly needs translation.

Eastern Europe generally retains some of the virtues destroyed by neoliberal economics elsewhere – a greater sense of community and a proper understanding of fundamental human values. To put it another way, they resemble the societies of my childhood in some ways (it is of course more complicated than that).

It is also true that Eastern Europe is understandably quite right-wing in its attitudes, given recent history, but the problem is that when one series of problems is removed, another completely different one takes its place, and these could be just as toxic. Machiavelli argued that the truths that are useful to us in one period are not in another, so we have to adapt constantly to a changing world. This must be truer now than in his day. Having said that, I think Estonia is dealing better with the new reality than some other countries that have emerged into the post-Soviet world.

Do you think Estonia and Scotland have something in common? What would it be?

Undoubtedly. We were more similar in the nineteenth century. The land belonged to large estates often run by people who spoke a different language. The status of smallholders and landless peasants was very similar (this is clear from the first volume of “Truth and Justice”), as were the economic autarky of peasantry and influence of the pastor or minister in those small societies.

In fact, Scotland resembled Estonia more closely than it did England in this sense. The reason was in part climatic: large tracts of marshland, long winters without little light and relatively low populations favour a certain kind of landownership (although, distance from large markets could be the decisive reason, as similar landownership existed in southern Italy and southern Spain). In Scotland, much of the abandonment of the land took place in the nineteenth century and the population has since been concentrated in the more fertile “Central Belt”, which became highly industrialised (but is no longer). Our language has almost disappeared, and our culture has been weakened.

The reason why Estonia is doing so much better is that it gained independence in 1918 and was able to develop sufficient self-confidence to survive the Soviet period. Scottish nationalism today is not about “land and blood”, because Scotland is a social-democratic country that would like to distribute wealth and public services more equitably, something that we’ll never achieve as part of the UK.

The Scottish National Party is the only government party in Europe that actively supports immigration, acknowledging that immigration, far from being a problem, is actually a way to revitalise a society. This is perhaps the most important thing we have achieved: a new definition for small-country nationalism in the twenty-first century.


Cover: Allan Cameron (Facebook).

Estonian children book “The Ear” by Piret Raud released in English

The latest addition to the Estonian children’s literature is great news for families raising an Estonian-English bilingual child – Piret Raud has written and illustrated a book for children in the age range of five to six years.

Raud is one of the most beloved and unique Estonian children’s book authors – her publications are known for their unique and surreal ideas and charmingly vivid, high-quality illustrations, drawn by the author herself.

“The Ear” is a tale where the protagonist is not just any old, unwashed hearing instrument – but the ear of Vincent Van Gogh, the painter (in)famous for severing part of his own ear.

What has an ear got to do when suddenly finding itself headless? It goes through an identity crisis, searching for a purpose and its place in the world. The story follows the themes of searching for identity, purpose and acceptance.

A visual treat

The book’s illustrations use vivid colour language with a creative approach to reality. The illustrations have a surrealistic approach that simplifies the details but communicates the essence of what is drawn. While similar to the way children would draw, Raud’s illustrations have elaborateness and preciseness about them, creating a visual treat for parents as well as an encouraging inspiration for kids to apply their own creativity.

Estonian children books’ translations are a rare, happy occasion, but to have a case of the author writing and publishing directly in English and with a foreign publisher is even less common.

The hardcover book is now available to order from Amazon and BookDepository.


Cover: An illustration from “The Ear” by Piret Raud.

Estonian novels translated into English in 2018

In 2018, six Estonian novels were translated into English, and now it’s time to look back and count the literary achievements for the past year.

With Estonians celebrating their 100 years of being a free and independent country, a larger emphasis has been given to make Estonian literature available to a wider audience.

According to Estonian Literature Centre, a total of 95 Estonian books were translated from Estonian into another languages, among them 21 into English. While the numbers may seem small, for a nation where each is one in a million it’s impressive achievement. Among the six translated books, three are classics and others are by contemporary authors. As one would expect from jubilee celebrations, all six novels have a recurring historic theme.

The Misadventures of the New Satan”, by A.H. Tammsaare

God has come to the conclusion that sending people to hell is unfair as it seems that humans are incapable of living a decent life on Earth. If that’s the case, hell will be shut down and the human race written off in an unfortunate mistake. Satan is given the chance to prove human beings are capable of salvation. To ensure the survival of hell, he agrees to live as a human to demonstrate it is possible to live a righteous life.

Following the advice of St Peter, he ends up on earth living as Jürka, a farmer and a tenant on a run-down Estonian farm. His goodwill and best intentions are tested by the machination of his unscrupulous landlord as well as the social and religious hypocrisy.

It’s the last novel by Estonia’s greatest twentieth-century writer, Anton Hansen Tammsaare (1876-1940). The story combines satire on the inequality of rural life and the absurdly strict social attitudes with themes of mythology, folklore and the bible.

Toomas Nipernaadi”, by August Gailit

August Gailit’s romantic vagabond story. It’s summer and the sky is deep blue (unless it happens to rain), the midnight sun is keeping the nature up until wee hours and the male protagonist, Toomas Nipernaadi, is on a journey. With a long days and brief, fresh nights, the counting of the cuckoo bird echoing back from the vast forests and along the fields, the road reaching for the horizon brings out the longing in one’s heart.

Nipernaadi’s carefree wonderings take him from a village to a village and from a story to a story.  Lyrical, not letting himself be disturbed by reality, traditions or truth, his only aim seems to be charming people and telling (and let’s be honest, inventing) stories. While occasionally light-hearted and funny (nothing politically-correct about him, these were different times), the protagonist’s melancholy longing for a beauty, romance and happy endings makes a whole story deeper than just a farce.

Published in 1928, it was also made into a vastly popular movie in 1983 and firmly set in the hearts of readers. A story of short Estonian summer with a dream-like white nights.

I Loved a German”, by A.H. Tammsaare

It has been a good year for classic literature translations, including two translations from A.H. Tammsaare, one of the best-know Estonian authors. “I Loved a German” is one of his latest  works. Estonian own star-crossed lovers, Oskar is an Estonian university student while Erika is a descendant of a once-noble Baltic-German family.

In the newly independent Estonia, people talk about moving forward and leaving the dark past behind. However, it’s not easy to look past the habits formed due to centuries of oppression and prejudice. Going beyond the external obstacles, Tammsaare looked into the human mind. Oskar, a descendant of the people who used to work on the estates of Baltic-Germans, starts doubting the source of his own love. Is Erica a prize to be had in this new world, desired for the past, or does he love her for who she is as a person?

Published in 1935, it has been adapted for theatre as well as movies. The story was written in a diary format and is praised for its psychological realism and considered to give a unique perspective into Baltic-German society at the time.

Burning Cities”, by Kai Aareleid

Two decades of family history, told from the retrospect of a now-grownup Tiina. After the Second World War, her home town of Tartu, that was destroyed by Nazi invasion, is rebuilt and re-mapped by Soviets. The grownup word is one of distrust, suspicion, worries and heavy drinking. Tiina, in the middle of it all, hears whispers and things grownups say and don’t say and knows many secrets, even if she doesn’t know what she knows.

The times are complicated. In addition to a political instability, there are shortage of food and living space and a surplus of mistrust and hostility. While historic background has its role to play, the story is a child’s perspective and the retrospect storytelling makes it into a melancholy coming-of-age-story.

Translated for the first time into English, “Burning Cities” is an intimate portrayal of life under the Soviet occupation and an absorbing family drama.

Hanuman’s Travels”, by Andrei Ivanov

A story about the daily lives of two asylum-seekers at a Danish refugee camp and on the road in the late 1990s. The two companions in misfortune, a Russian-Estonian and an Indian, wait to go the promised land, the Danish island of Lolland. Meanwhile, they have to survive among scams, humiliations, lies and big and small disgraces.

“Hanuman’s Travels” was shortlisted for the Russian Booker Prize in 2010, translated into German and French and put on the German stage. It is a picaresque tale of hopes and fears in a setting where thousands of people’s dreams and plans intertwine. Ivanov was inspired to write this novel by his own vicissitudes as a stateless person living in Denmark. Their struggle at times engenders dismissiveness and even intolerance, but also humanity, courage and the wisdom born of experience and resignation.

Pobeda 1946. The Car Called Victory”, by Ilmar Taska

In Tallinn, in 1946, a young boy is transfixed by the beauty of a luxurious cream-coloured car gliding down the street. It is the Soviet Pobeda, a car called Victory. The sympathetic driver invites the boy for a ride and enquires about his family. Soon after the incident, the boy’s father disappears.

Ilmar Taska’s debut novel captures the distrust and fear among Estonians living under the Soviet occupation after the Second World War during Joseph Stalin’s reign.

A world seen through the eyes of a young boy shows a society where it is difficult to know who is right and who is wrong. People disappearing, informants and the tortured living under the same fears themselves.

“Pobeda 1946: The Car Called Victory” is Ilmar Taska first novel, and it’s based on a prize-winning short story from 2014.


Cover: A screenshot from “Nipernaadi” (1983), the movie based on the novel of the same name by August Gailit.

Six children’s books by Estonian authors that are translated

What is the best way to sell books? The information passed on from person to person seems to be a pretty solid way to get the word around, Edith Soosaar writes.

More translated children’s books to follow up on the first story, Estonian authors translated books.

Since our recent article, people have reached out and told me about other authors and their books and I’m happy to share three more authors and six more books by Estonian writers that are not only translated into English but are also actually available to buy. Some are a few years old while others are up for pre-order.

The Family Tales by Epp Petrone and Piia Maiste

The first listing is not a book but rather an author. Epp Petrone has written, published, translated and published again six children’s books that are all translated and available to order abroad. Four of these books make up “The Family Tales” series. Epp Petrone’s storytelling and Piia Maiste’s illustrations describe the everyday adventures of a family with children. The books are intended as a bedtime reading for little boys and girls alike.

The first book of the series, Marta’s Toes, was written by the author as a gift for her own daughter’s birthday. The story shows a world through the eyes of a small girl growing up next to a big city and the sea.

The second book in the series is Anna’s Teeth. A new family member is bound to change things. Marta becomes a “big sister”. Young human beings have small, everyday adventures – from snail racing to playing with a baby sister.

The third book of the series tells the story through a baby’s perspective. Lena’s Laugh is from the point of view of the newest family member, Lena. A baby who still remembers her time in the belly is learning about her family.

The fourth book, Furry Purry, centers around the family pet, a tabby Furry, and Lena, who can still speak “cat language”. They teach each other about the cat and human worlds.

Coming soon – new translations of Estonian children’s books available to pre-order

Then there is a new book by Piret Raud, The Ear, on the horizon.

It’s a tale where the protagonist is not just any old, unwashed hearing instrument – but the ear of Vincent Van Gogh, the painter (in)famous for severing part of his own ear. What has an ear got to do when suddenly finding itself headless?

Raud is one of the best-selling children authors in Estonia, with an incredibly clever and unique writing style. Her books have been translated into 12 different languages so far – and multiple prints have been popular enough to have been sold out already.

And then there’s an old classic that is due to be available in English. The Gothamites (Kilplased) by Eno Raud is an absolute classic among Estonian children’s books.

When originally wise Gothmites find that with all people coming to ask for an advice they have no time to deal with any of their own problems, they decide to become stupid in the hope of being left alone.

It doesn’t quite work out as intended and the hilarity is ensured. Illustrations by the renowned Estonian animator, Priit Pärn, have brought into the picture the characters that have been a butt of many jokes for the generations of Estonians growing up.


Cover: An illustration by Priit Pärn for The Gothamites by Eno Raud.

Estonian author Indrek Hargla about reading, writing and publishing

Edith Soosaar interviews one of the best known and best-selling fantasy and fiction writers in Estonia, Indrek Hargla – the author of the popular Apothecary Melchior detective novels – who shares thoughts about his writing process, experience in publishing and translating, and becoming a writer.

Indrek Hargla has written novels, novelettes and short stories. He became famous with the Apothecary Melchior stories (historical crime-fiction set in a medieval Tallinn) of which the first two are translated and available in English. Over the years his works have been translated into French, English, German, Hungarian, Latvian and Finnish. His books are available to order from the Book Depository, (yes, this is affiliate link and these are good books).

I would like to know more about your writing process. Do you plan out the story before you start writing or start from the beginning with a vague outline and see where the characters take you?

I use both methods; writing must be an adventure and disciplined craftsmanship at the same time. You should always have certain ideas what you want to write but sometimes you don’t need to stick to original plans, the story and characters come alive and guide you. The genre is important; in crime fiction, the genre dictates the structure, disposition of characters and events. Crime and science fiction readers have certain expectations and writer must fulfill them, play by the rules but be original and innovative.

I do a lot of outlining when I write Melchior novels. Crime fiction always involves “engineering” – you just cannot kill somebody and see what happens and who might be the killer. I must know from the first sentence who did it and why. Then again, outlining and research must be minimal; a writer must not be enslaved to outlining. Usually, when you have written about one-third of any text, it is a right time to read it over and assess what kind of thing it wants to be, where it goes, what is the soul and spirit inside it; what it needs to succeed.

The thing is, you do not know your characters before writing. They develop and start to live on their own, listen to them, argue with them but try to understand them.

You have emphasised in your previous interviews the importance of the writer’s voice. How long did it take for you to get comfortable with your own writer’s voice? What would you recommend for young authors to develop theirs?

About 10-15 years I guess, and I am still not very comfortable with my own voice, but I am getting there.

The most important thing I recommend: do not write your story as you’d think this kind of story is usually written. In your mind, you imagine a certain way of style and choice of words how writing generally goes, and you try to replicate, to mirror this. That is the wrong way, this way you get very average, ordinary, a mediocre blend of a very usual literature – a kind of second-hand derivative stuff.

There is no other way but to meditate, work hard, concentrate really hard. You must write as you write and not how you think it is usually written but not overdo it, not to be too original, postmodern or challenging or too cool. About 70% of excellent writing is standard, common to all good literature – clear storytelling, colourful characters, sharp ideas, eloquent and powerful style. If it is not in you, then it’s not in you. When the real you is a bad writer, you have to face it and try not to write anymore.

How do you discipline yourself through the writing and multiple editing rounds? Do you use the Pomodoro technique (20-minute writing, 10-minute break) or some other time control-technique?

I do not use any specific technique. I just work, contemplate, meditate, plan, research and plan again whenever I can, and this is how it is most of the time. I may sit behind the computer for five hours and not write a single sentence – and then suddenly write three pages in one go. I think four or five pages of quality text per day is enough and one cannot demand more.

How do you decide on the genre for a new book? Have you had a case where you started writing with an idea in your head, but the story didn’t work, and you had to change something really fundamental (like a genre, location etc) to make it work?

No, you cannot change the genre. Novelettes can grow into novellas and novellas into novels, yes – but genres do not change. Maybe sub-genres can – what you originally planned as a steampunk-themed, may turn into more science fantasy, but no more. When you start a crime novel and cannot stick to the rules of the genre you probably end up with a boring mainstream book nobody wants to read.

Once I started a novel and after a while, I felt I am not up to it. I put it aside for a few years and then suddenly realised that the main idea was still there and still good – so I thought why not to write a short story? And I did; I transformed the idea of a novel into a story, or a novelette rather, and I am still satisfied with it. “Raudhammas” (The Iron Tooth – editor) is the name of the novelette; people still remember it and it was broadcasted on national radio.

What do you consider your weakest point/downfall as a writer? What’s your strongest side? What is the hardest part about being a writer? What’s the best part?

Weakest point? Impatience maybe. I am lazy enough to be a writer, but you have to be lazier. You write a sentence or a chapter; you know it’s not perfect, but it is passable, and you think: fine, let it be. There is always a better choice of words, which comes with more meditation and concentration.

The strongest side? A wish not to write ordinary stuff that has been written so many times before. The hardest part is the realisation that writing is not easy. It takes so much from you – time and energy – so basically, you give something away. The best part is this miraculous feeling when you see that suddenly things are falling into right places. You have put some ideas and elements into the story and you do not know why… And then you see it, everything fits like someone has been guiding you.

Do you find it harder to come up with positive or negative characters?

Positive ones, probably. Positive characters tend to be very much the same and ordinary. You need to give them some bad traits, make them from good characters into chaotic good ones, or so.

Being a writer seems to be an ever-learning process. What are the things you feel you still need to master? What is the most useful skill you have learned to help you along with your career? Both as a person writing books as well as helping your books reach the audience?

Ever-learning, yes. As I said, there is always a better choice of words. I have learned not to use common expressions in fiction. I learned there are words that a more loaded, suggestive, thought-provoking and full of possibilities than others and you need to find them. If you cannot write a good dialogue between two characters, then do not write that scene. You must always put interesting and unexpected things into every scene. Do not deliver empty scenes.

It takes much more time to come up with interesting ideas and that’s why I am such a slow writer. But I feel I must not give anything away.

Apothecary Melchior stories

Two of your books from Apothecary Melchior murder mysteries have been translated into English. Did you search for translationpublishing options yourself or was its initiative from the publishing house?

No, I never do that, I do not search for options myself. In fact, I cannot even remember now how the first two books got published in English. French and Finnish translations are much more important to me.

The Melchior series gets better all the time if I’m allowed to say this. The fifth and sixth novel really stands up for me and I am very happy that they are published in French. Jean Pascal Ollivry, my translator, was this wonderful person who once took the initiative to recommend the Melchior series to the French publisher.

It’s not uncommon to add a character flaw or a handicap to the protagonists to make them more humane and balances as humans. In Melchior’s case, you choose to add his health condition. What other options did you consider when first building his character?

I cannot really say I considered any other options. I just came up with the idea when I wrote and inserted it into the story not knowing what I am going to do with it or how important it was going to be, if ever. It just felt like a right or interesting thing at the time.

In later books, I picked it up and started playing around. Writing is like this – you just sit alone, come up with things and hope somebody takes interest in reading it. Melchior’s curse was not a product of careful engineering, just a spark of an idea that I used, in hope it would help make the character more interesting.

How did you come up with the Melchior’s health condition? Did you had a specific condition in mind or is it made up for the story?

It is made up. Mostly. But the reasons behind it and the true essence are not yet revealed so I cannot say anything more.

Do you control the story, do the stories take over as you write or is it a joint effort?

They must take over. They must come alive and guide me, they must tell me what they want. But writing a crime novel is an “engineering” to a large extent. There are certain rules and you must be disciplined to follow them. There have to be suspense and surprise ending in crime fiction; you have to deceive your readers, but you cannot cheat.

There can be a love story in crime novel but it can’t be a romance novel as a whole. You can use an element of horror or thriller, make them organically part of the story, but you must not lose focus and concentrate on a murder mystery. Murder must have the central role and prevail over other storylines. The crime novel is meticulously crafted, constructed and engineered product but it must look effortless.

Publishing home and abroad

Tell us about your very first novel manuscript? How long it took to write, how many rewrite rounds? When you had a manuscript ready how did you go about finding a publisher?

My first novel, “Baiita needus” (The Curse of Baiita – editor), is a very badly written novel. I wrote it quickly, I seem to remember. It was written by an aspirant of literature. I sent it to a local novel competition. Eventually, unfortunately, it got some honourable mentioning there, so one publisher approached me and bought it. I do not want to be remembered for that novel. Estonia is that small that even raw material like this gets published.

Do you participate in the marketing of your books abroad? How? The London Book Fair? Festivals? Books signings?

I do when I am asked. I do not market anything on my own. When I am invited to a festival, I go. I was not invited to the London Book Fair. Mostly, I have been to France for different fairs and festivals.

How is the marketing of books for the international audience different from marketing in Estonia?

Well, nobody knows anything about the Estonian literature abroad, so it must be very tough for a foreign publisher to publish an Estonian novel. I do not think that any Estonian author would ever be sold at airport book stands. You must be an Anglo-American or Scandinavian author to be really promoted in the international market.

Despite being one of the best known, bestselling and widely read Estonian author, you have chosen not to be a member of the Estonian Literature Association. Why?

I left the association before the last elections. Some members from the board were recruited to a certain left-wing, pro-Soviet party, and started intensely to use their membership in literature association to promote left-wing politics under the red flags. Most of the supporters of this party do not even speak the Estonian language. It felt like the association was hijacked by Soviets, so I chose to give up my membership.

I do not think that you can be a member of the board and speak in the name of all association to promulgate ideas that are against the principals that form the core of Estonian statehood.

Who in your opinion is currently the best writer in Estonia and in the world?

I do not know about the world. In Estonia, I could name three – or two, rather – because Rein Põder recently passed away, probably the best novelist of all times in Estonia. The other two are Meelis Friedenthal and Andrus Kivirähk.

In your Q&A session at the Estonian Opinion Festival 2015 at Rahva Raamat’s (Estonian book retailer) garden you said Estonia already had plenty of “looking-out-the window-and-telling-what-you-see” books and Estonian literature could use some more fiction writing. Do you feel the situation has improved since?

Not much. Realism and writing about yourself and every-day life are the main paradigm of Estonian literature. Those who dare to venture away from that mainstream do not write well yet.

Asimov or Adams?



Cover: Indrek Hargla at the Lyon Literature Festival book signing.

Four Estonian children’s books translated into English and where to find them

Edith Soosaar ventured out to collect the information about the Estonian children’s books translated into English from the last few years and where to find them for mail-order abroad.

If you have tried to find an Estonian children’s book translated into English that would be available to mail order abroad, it turns out to be less than trivial. Translations of Estonian children’s books are a rare occasion well worth celebrating. While over the last decade approximately one book per year has been translated into English by Estonian publishers and publishing houses abroad, many are sold out while others are only available directly from the authors or publishing house.

“Everyone’s the Smartest” by Contra and Ülle Saar

The latest (2018) addition to English translations of Estonian children’s books is a poetry collection. It comes with six pages of supplementary materials, giving young readers prompts and tips on how to write their own poems. Originally published in 2014 under the title “Kõik on kõige targemad”, it has won the Estonian Literature Annual Award for Children’s Literature. 

Illustrations by Ulla Saar, translated by Kätlin Kaldmaa, with the assistance of Charlotte Geater and Richard O’Brien.

Available from Book Depository (yes, this is a big scary affiliate link, but we love to recommend them as they have books and ship worldwide for free).

“Estonian Child – Mild and Wild” by Kätlin Vainola

The book is talking about what it’s like to grow up as a child in Estonia through the eyes of Uku and Leelo, friends and the main characters of the story. Together they play the discovery game and explore what is the life of Estonian kids like. Step by step and level by level they discover different childhood milestones, starting from birth and being named – all the way to participating in the song and dance celebration.

Among other topics, kids find out about kindergarten, ukaka, biscuit cake, nature trip, kama, kaerajaan and the national holiday traditions. Going through the levels will help the reader get an idea what it’s like to be a kid living in Estonia. The book contains colouring pages, jokes, comics, a recipe to make a biscuit cake and room for notes.

Illustrations and design by Ulla Saar and translation by Livia Ulman.

Available from the Rahva Raamat online shop directly from Estonia.

“Grace & The Magic Flame” by Eleonora Raus

“Grace & the Magic Flame” is a book for six to eight-year-olds, and it was written, illustrated and published in 2016. The story is about a character, Grace, who learns about the important value of gratitude by accidentally getting lost in the woods and meeting a magical fire flame. The flame guides her way out of the forest, and along the way, they meet various creatures, all of whom are grateful for different things in their life.

The author has made her own illustrations. For now, the book can be ordered directly from the author’s website. Always good to support the artist directly. Part of the profits goes to a nonprofit that fights against excessive deforestation of Estonian old-growth woodlands.

“Mau Nau Colouring Book Comics” by Okeiko and Maari Soekov

This is a colouring book-comic for all ages. The texts are parallel in English and Estonian, making it a fun and helpful addition for a person who learns Estonian. 

MAU NAU tells a tale of a chance encounter, beginning of a friendship and the celebration of life. Through the hands of experience of filling in the colors in the comic, a reader gets to give the story a unique personal touch. The book includes pages with colourful stickers.

Available via Amazon.


Cover: Book cover of “Grace & the Magic Flame”

Estonians are the biggest bookworms in the world

According to a study by the Australian National University and the University of Nevada in the US, Estonians lead the world in the average number of books people own.

A new study by researchers at the Australian National University and the University of Nevada in the US has revealed which countries are the world’s biggest bookworms – and Estonia leads the way.

On average, Estonians own 218 books per house and 35% of the respondents own 350 books or more.

An average number of books per house when people were 16

Estonia – 218

Norway – 212

Czech Republic – 204

Denmark – 192

Russia – 154

Germany – 151

Australia – 148

UK – 143

Canada – 125

France – 117

World – 115

The benefit of books

According to the study, published in the journal, Social Science Research, having more books when growing up improves educational outcomes. Adults with university degrees, but who grew up with fewer books, had the same level of literacy as those who left school in year nine – basic education – but who had a lot of household books as teens.

The study also established that the number of household books at age 16 had a positive correlation with literacy, numeracy and IT skills in later years – independent of how much tertiary study a person did, or how often they read as an adult.

The benefit of books was consistent across the world, and independent of a person’s education level, their job as an adult, sex, age or the education level of their parents.

Researchers surveyed adults across 31 countries, between the ages of 25 and 65, and asked them how many books they had in their home when they were 16.

The fact that Estonians buy a lot of books and read a lot may not come as a surprise – in a country of only 1.3 million people, one can find bookstores in any large shopping centre. Besides, several independent bookshops still survive in Tallinn and Tartu. Even more puzzling – considering the market size – is the number of publishers in Estonia, estimated at almost 900.


Cover: A young reader in Estonia (the image is illustrative/courtesy of Rahva Raamat).

The Tartu Writer in Residency programme helps foreign and Estonian writers meet

Edith Soosaar interviews Marja Unt, the coordinator of the first Estonian public writer-in-residence programme in Tartu, that gives international writers and translators the chance to exchange experiences with Estonian writers.

The Writer in Residency programme, located in Tartu, the Estonian town of literature, hosts international writers and translators with the aim of providing an inspiring environment to work and give the opportunity to exchange experiences and communicate with Estonian writers. We asked Unt about how the residence was started, about the residency requirements and the selection process.

The writers residency at the Ristikivi (Karl Ristikivi was an Estonian author – editor) museum is the first and so far the only such programme in Estonia. Could you tell us about the birth of the Ristikivi writers’ retreat? How did it start? What came first, the place or the idea?

The idea that Tartu as a town with a rich cultural heritage and an inspiring environment should have an international residency programme for writers had been discussed for a while in the local literary circles. After Tartu was designated the UNESCO Creative City of Literature, it seemed logical to launch the residency programme as part of the town’s action plan as a city of literature.

Especially since our sister cities in the network, Prague and Krakow, already had the experience and good models we could adapt. The residency programme was discussed in the city of literature workgroup of which the chairman of the Karl Ristikivi Society, Janika Kronberg, is a member, so the group concluded that Ristikivi’s house in the Tähtvere district would be the perfect place to accommodate the residents.

Is it a short-term project – to run along with the UNESCO City of Literature – or will the residency continue?

As the UNESCO City of Literature is not a project but a permanent status and membership in an expanding international network, the residency programme, as part of our strategy, is a long-term measure. Naturally, the regularity and the developments of the programme also depend on the funding.

What are the costs related to the retreat? Where does the money come from?

The main costs are related to scholarships, travel compensation and the rent we pay to the Ristikivi Society so that it can keep the house in good living conditions. Most of the funding comes from the Tartu City Government, but we have been and hope to be supported in the future by the ministry of culture and the Estonian Cultural Endowment.


How many applications were submitted for the autumn-winter residency programme this year?

This autumn, we received 21 applications from writers and translators from different countries across the world.

Do you get repeat applications from authors who haven’t been picked yet?

Yes, some writers and translators have applied more than once and this is something we encourage. Since we can only take one resident at a time, not getting selected does not mean the committee is not interested in the applicant. Since there are also many new applicants during every call, the general picture is always very different, and it is not possible to guarantee that re-applying would result in being selected.

How are the authors for the writer’s residency selected among the applicants? How many people decide and how is each author’s background evaluated?

The authors are picked by a committee of four people – the representatives of the Tartu City of Literature Office (the Estonian Literary Society), the Tartu Department of the Estonian Writers Union, the Estonian Literary Museum and the Karl Ristikivi Society. As it is characteristic to most decisions related to arts and creativity, the selection is not easy – we consider many aspects, the background and the sample work sent to us as well as the motivation letter and the plans for the residency.

While evaluating the application, we also keep in mind that in addition to offering a creative retreat, the residency programme also aims to increase cultural communication and build stronger links between different literatures and literary scenes – therefore, while reading the application, among other things we also try to imagine which of the candidates could better connect with the local cultural environment and would gain the most from it.

Is there any specific focus when picking the writer for the residency? For example, is preference given to young authors to help them along, or are the more established/best known/most achieved authors preferred?

We have not set a specific focus and try to keep the programme as flexible as possible so that we could welcome very different authors in Tartu. The applicants, however, need to meet the criteria of the programme, including at least one published book (fiction or non-fiction), screenplay, theatre script or a translation from Estonian into another language.

Will the authors know why one or another of them was selected or not selected?

As there are so many factors at play during the selection process, it would be very difficult to clearly list the reasons why an applicant was not selected (during the respective call). However, after we have selected the next resident, the committee gives a short commentary for the press release about the selected applicant.


What kind of facilities will the resident author have for their use? It is my understanding that there is an apartment at the Ristikivi museum?

The residency programme offers free accommodation in the house of former Ristikivi Museum. The museum itself was closed in 2007; the rooms, however, are still managed by the Karl Ristikivi Society and are used as a short-term rental space for writers, translators and scholars. The apartment – the whole first floor of a two-story house – is quite spacious, consisting of a kitchen with all basic facilities, a bathroom, a living room and a bedroom. There is gas heating and the place also has a good internet connection.

How much do you “babysit” the writer during the residency? Do they get keys, a map and a five-minute walkaround or is there a more social side involved?

As we appreciate the involvement in the local cultural scene, a personal contact person/project manager is assigned to help the resident with both everyday issues, show them the city and introduce the local people. Naturally, the contact person’s task is also finding a balance – making sure where advice and help are needed while not suffocating the guest with recommendations and information. The contact person also assists our office in organising interviews and events with the resident.

One of the conditions for applying is the willingness to participate in local culture/literary life. How have the writers so far been “used”?

Participation is encouraged on both a formal and informal level. We cooperate with the two biggest literary events in Tartu – the interdisciplinary festival, Crazy Tartu, taking place in November and the Tartu International Literary Festival Prima Vista, which takes place in May. Although this is not an obligation, we always offer the resident the opportunity to perform at one of the festivals.

We organise at least one solo event during the stay, the form and content (a reading, a discussion, a performance) depending on the works, the creative profile and the preferences of the resident, and there can be several other ways the resident can be involved in the local cultural programming as well as discussions in the media.

The first resident, Andrej Tomažin from Slovenia, did a memorable performance at Crazy Tartu 2017, had a discussion night at the literary salon of the bookshop Utoopia and gave interviews.

The writer and cultural critic, Darran Anderson from Ireland, whom we hosted this spring, gave a speech at the thematic show of Prima Vista, had a public discussion night and participated in a panel discussion during the vision day, Escape Room to the Future, organised as part of the preparations of Tartu 2024 for European Capital of Culture candidacy.

In addition to the public events, the more informal discussions, meeting the local people and just attending events are ways of participation that can sometimes have even a bigger long-term impact.

The future

For now, there are two residency periods per year – any plans for expanding? Making it more frequent, having more than one person at a time from different fields to create synergy?

The interest in organising residencies in Tartu seems to be growing in different fields of art. As our programme is connected to the aims of Tartu as a town of literature, it will stay focused on verbal arts.

Naturally, we would be thrilled if we could offer more – have more than one resident at a time, announce the programme more than twice a year, offer a specific program for cultural journalists and so on – but at present, the possibilities are limited by funding and the human resources of our office. Which, of course, might change in the future. Should new residency programmes be opened in the town connected to other fields of art, I’m sure there will be opportunities for cooperation.

How are you pleased with the results so far? Do you feel the programme fills its intended purpose? Is it even possible to evaluate or measure the success of the programme?

I’ll start with the last question: evaluation and measuring of cultural projects is, of course, always a complex issue, especially with residencies, since we cannot measure inspiration or the impact a new environment and the working conditions of the residency can have on creativity, the most we can do is to talk about it, reflect on it. But so far it seems the programme is having the effect it is supposed to – offering writers the opportunity to have time and space to work as well as experience and reflect the local environment and forge new connections.

At the same time, the local readers have the opportunity to discover the works and meet the writers with different cultural backgrounds. What we consider of great importance, is the long-term impact of the residencies – ideally, communication and cultural cooperation with the residents should not be limited just with their stay in Tartu but would contribute to building long-lasting cultural bridges and, so far, this has been the direction to which our cooperation with the residents has been heading.

The next round of applications for the Writer in Residence programme will be announced in spring 2019.


Cover: The house of the former Karl Ristikivi Museum in Tartu. Please click on the images to see the captions.

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